State Systems of Identification and Support under ESSA: Evaluating Identification Methods and Results in an Accountability System

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This paper is the second in a series of two discussing systems of school identification and support
under the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA). This paper focuses on both technical and policy
considerations for states in evaluating the success of their identification and accountability systems
under ESSA. In an effort to inform readers on evaluating accountability systems, it describes
considerations and methods to (1) evaluate the reliability of accountability scores and performance
designations—including those schools identified for support and improvement, (2) evaluate
the utility and impact of accountability systems in general and school identification systems in
particular, and (3) evaluate the link between local behaviors and outcome improvement driven
by accountability. This paper is intended to supplement the first in this series, State Systems
of Identification and Support under ESSA: A focus on designing and revising systems of school
identification (Lyons, D’Brot, & Landl, 2017). The first paper provides a comprehensive overview of
the federal law and key design considerations for states as they develop and revise their systems of
school identification under ESSA.

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